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As an FY1 you will frequently see hypokalaemia and most trusts have guidelines that should be used in the first instance. The advice below is informal & based on broad day to day...
Non-Invasive Ventilation
Non-invasive ventilation is a way of providing ventilatory support to patients in respiratory failure without using an invasive airway device (e.g. ET tube or tracheostomy tube).The...
Heart Failure
Heart Failure
Heart Failure is not a diagnosis in itself, rather a collection of symptoms that require investigation to find the underlying cause.Heart failure syndrome is the term used to describe...
Mental Capacity
Mental Capacity
Mental Capacity is the ability to make your own decisions at the time at which the decision needs to be made. The mental capacity act was designed to protect and empower people who...
NG Tube
Nasogastric Tubes
NG tubes are passed from the nose to the stomach. Depending on the material, they can stay between 2 to 6 weeks. However, they quite easily can fall out either being accidentally tugged...
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism
A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blocked blood vessel in your lungs, most often due to a blood clot. It is common and can be asymptomatic but can be life-threatening if the clot is large...

Latest Content

A Cheat Sheet for Neonatal Invasive Ventilation
Neonatal ventilation is a complex topic but one you may need to get your head around as an FY2 if you cover a NICU as part of your paeds rotation. You should read our article about...
Visual Field Defects: A Summary
The visual field is the entire area a patient can see with their eyes fixes and without moving their head up, down, left or right. The image is inverted upside down and flipped left...
Anterior uveitis
Introduction – epidemiology and causes/risk factors:Uveitis is a condition that describes the inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. Anterior uveitis, more specifically,...
Central retinal artery/vein occlusion
DefinitionSudden onset painless loss of vision is usually due to vascular occlusion. There are two types of vascular occlusions discussed in this article.Central Retinal Vein...
Chronic open angle glaucoma
Glaucoma can be divided into open-angle or closed-angle glaucoma. Closed-angle glaucoma has been described in a separate article. Open-angle glaucoma accounts for the majority (74%)...
Pupil abnormalities
Pupillary reflex pathway:Light reaches the retina, travels via ganglion cells to the optic nerve, which then forms the optic chiasm before diverging into the left and right optic...
An Introduction To Retinal Tears
Most common presenting symptoms: Flashing lights or new floatersIntroductionA retinal tear is described as a full thickness defect in the retina, normally in the periphery of...
Getting Involved in Research
Unveiling the World of Research: My Medical Student Journey and Tips for Getting Involved 
Introduction  Starting my research journey as a medical student has been an incredible and transformative experience. In this article, I wholeheartedly share my personal...
How to make a (good) referral to Ophthalmology – tips and tricks
Ophthalmology has long been the specialty with the most referrals and patient appointments in an outpatient environment, having had over 8.7 million clinic appointments scheduled in...
How to spend a Foundation Year 3 for an Ophthalmology application (and other things you can do in Foundation training)
Ophthalmology training is becoming increasingly competitive every year and is one of the most competitive specialty training programmes in the UK, boasting a competition ratio of  9.91...
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