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Fluid Balance
Fluid Balance
Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their...
Insulin
Hyperglycaemia
Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus...
Falls
Falls
As an F1, you will quite frequently get bleeped to review a patient who has had a...
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte...
Drowsy
Reduced GCS
As a doctor, you will frequently be called for a drowsy patient. They can vary from...
AXR
Abdominal X-rays
The advantages of AXRs are far less radiation to patients & that they’re...
Hypoxia
Hypoxia
As an FY1, you will be called to review hypoxic ward patients. Here we discuss common...
Prescribing analgesia
Prescribing analgesia
When assessing pain, ensure you begin by taking a history to characterise the pain...
Interpreting Blood Films
Interpreting Blood Films
A blood film looks at our three cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets)...
Chest Pain
Chest Pain
As a junior doctor, you will also often assess patients complaining of chest pain...
Paracetamol Overdose
Paracetamol Overdose
As an FY1, you will encounter these either during clerking shifts or you may look...
Tachyarrhythmias
Tachyarrhythmias
Tachyarrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms with a pulse rate of >100 beats per...
Ascitic Tap and Drain
Ascitic Tap and Drain
Ascitic aspiration (tap) is routinely performed for every patient admitted with ascites...
Acute Kidney Injury
Acute Kidney Injury
AKI is very common affecting around 20% of inpatients & it is important to recognise...
Hypoglycaemia
Hypoglycaemia
Management of low blood sugar in conscious & unconscious patients, finding common...
Hypertension
Hypertension in Hospital
As a junior doctor, you will often be called about patients with raised blood pressure...
Seizures
Seizures
Scenario: You are bleeped by one of the staff nurses to review a patient on the orthopaedic...
Heparin
Anticoagulation
For new doctors, prescribing anticoagulants can be daunting. A few simple rules can...
Delirium
Delirium
Acute confusion, otherwise known as delirium, is very common in hospitals: 20-30%...
Myocarditis
Myocarditis
Myocarditis (derived from ‘myocardium’ = cardiac muscle, and -itis = inflammation)...
ECG Basics
ECG Basics
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most common, and important, investigations...
Upper GI bleed
Upper GI bleed
These patients have the potential to become haemodynamically unstable extremely quickly;...
Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Fibrillation
AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia you will encounter. In this article,...
Sepsis
Sepsis
Sepsis is an infection with evidence of organ dysfunction. Septic shock is when a...
Jaundice
Jaundice & Deranged LFTs
As the FY1, you will see patients with liver dysfunction either on the take or deranged...
Medication in Diabetes
Medications in Diabetes
In this article, we’ll cover the treatments used in Diabetes Mellitus. We’ll...
Discharge Planning
Discharge Planning
It is important for junior doctors to understand what the discharge planning process...
Discussing Treatment Escalation & DNAR
Discussing Treatment Escalation & DNAR
As an FY1 you should not be expected to make decisions regarding treatment escalation...
Constipation
Constipation
Constipation is one of the most common complaints in hospital, especially on the...
Diabetes
DKA and HHS
You’ve found a patient is hyperglycaemic & either they are ketotic...
Stroke
Acute Stroke
Whilst on call or in A&E you may be asked to assess somebody who is suspected...
Nausea & Vomiting
Nausea & Vomiting
You will frequently get calls regarding nausea & vomiting: many patients present...
PICC Lines and Midlines
PICC Lines and Midlines
You may well be asked to take blood from a PICC line or be called to see a patient...
Palliative
Palliative Care
Dying is a natural process and unfortunately, something that we all come across in...
NIV
Non-Invasive Ventilation
Non-invasive ventilation is a way of providing ventilatory support to patients in...
Hypercalcaemia
Hypercalcaemia
Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia...
COPD
Acute COPD exacerbation
As an FY1, you are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term COPD...
Abdominal Pain
Abdominal Pain
When you are on call, you will often get a bleep about a patient with abdominal pain....
NG Tube
Nasogastric Tubes
NG tubes are passed from the nose to the stomach. Depending on the material, they...
Pulmonary Oedema
Pulmonary Oedema
RCEM has published some clear and comprehensive information which is well worth a...
Anaemia
Anaemia
Perhaps the most common blood test you will review daily will be the FBC (full blood...
Transfusion
Transfusion
In this article, we will go through the three most common scenarios you will encounter....
Syncope
Syncope
From the Greek: Syn: together & kopein: to cut - referring to a block in blood supply...
Haematuria
Haematuria
You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally...
Common Skin Issues
Common Skin Issues
Dermatology is a vast topic that junior doctors often find daunting. Do read our...
Orthogeriatrics
Orthogeriatrics
Fragility fractures in the elderly As a junior doctor on call, in geriatrics or in...
Heart Failure
Heart Failure
Heart Failure is not a diagnosis in itself, rather a collection of symptoms that...
Describing Skin Lesions
Describing Skin Lesions
It is quite common for you to need to describe rashes for documentation purposes,...
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism
A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blocked blood vessel in your lungs, most often due...
Pneumothorax
Pneumothorax
A pneumothorax is defined as the abnormal collection of air between the visceral...
Hypernatraemia
Hypernatraemia
Hypernatraemia is defined as a sodium above 145 mmol/L with severe being more than...
Palpitations
Palpitations
Palpitations can be described as the sensation of an abnormally received heartbeat....
Pneumonia
Pneumonia
In this article, we will focus on more practical concerns when managing a patient...
Microbiology Discussions
Microbiology Discussions
A lot of your time as an FY1 will be spent on the phone to various other specialities....
Frailty
Frailty Syndromes
What is frailty? A state of increased vulnerability to poor resolution of homeostasis...
Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s Disease
In this article, we will present several common scenarios involving Parkinson’s disease...
Fever in the Returning Traveller
Fever in the Returning Traveller
COVID-19 aside, international travel is easier and more prevalent than ever before,...
Dementia
Dementia
As an FY1 in hospital, you will come across lots of patients with dementia. They...
E Coli
Diarrhoea
Diarrhoea is a very common complaint and may be the reason for a patient’s admission,...
Homes
Understanding Types of Homes
Patients may live or be discharged to a wide variety of social care settings and...
Asthma
Acute Asthma
You are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term asthma management,...
Alcohol Withdrawal
Alcohol Withdrawal
Suddenly stopping alcohol intake in patients who have been drinking heavily for prolonged...
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a relapsing and remitting inflammatory...
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Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by the irreversible...
Pancreatitis
Pancreatitis
Pancreatitis is a condition characterised by the inflammation of the pancreas. These...
Neutropenic Sepsis
Neutropenic Sepsis
Please read an overview of the management of sepsis before reading this article.Neutropenic...
Performing Arterial Blood Gases
Performing Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs)
Thanks to Geeky Medics for an excellent video demonstration EquipmentGloves Alcohol...
Dialysis
Dialysis Patients
There is an increasing prevalence of end-stage kidney disease and it is therefore...
Stomas
Stomas
The word stoma comes from Greek to mean “an opening”. There are many...
Opiate overdose & toxicity
Opiate overdose & toxicity
You will likely encounter an opiate overdose due to the prevalence of opiates for...
CNS Infections
CNS Infections
A CNS infection is one that involves the central nervous system in some way. This...
Headache
Headache
Acute headache is a common complaint that you’ll see whilst on the wards or...
Bradyarrythmias
Bradyarrhythmias
Bradyarrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms with a pulse rate of <60 beats per...
Diabetic Foot Ulcer
Diabetic Foot Ulcers
Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcerations are a significant complication of diabetes...
Back Pain
Back Pain
In this article, we cover the assessment and management of back pain. This article...
Geriatric Medicine
Applying to Geriatric Medicine
Within Geriatric Medicine you are always working as part of a multidisciplinary team...
Interpreting CSF Results
Interpreting CSF Results
Understanding how to do an LP and interpret the results is an essential skill for...
Swollen Joint
Acutely Swollen Joint
There are three joint pain calls you might receive whilst you’re on call or...
Nutrition
Nutrition
Nutrition is an important aspect of a patient’s health and is overlooked during medical...
Lumbar Puncture
Lumbar Puncture
A lumbar puncture uses a fine needle inserted between the vertebrae in the lower...
Infective Endocarditis
Infective Endocarditis
Infective endocarditis (IE) is relatively rare in the UK. However, delays in diagnosis...
Suturing
Suturing
Sutures are placed to aid with wound healing following a traumatic laceration or...
Clot
Deep Vein Thrombosis
A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a blood clot (thrombosis) forms...
Notifiable Diseases
Notifiable Diseases
As a junior doctor, it is your statutory duty as a medical professional to alert...
UTI
Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adults are extremely common in both primary and...
Endocrinology
Thyroid Disease
As a junior, you will frequently see patients who potentially have thyroid dysfunction....
Spinal Cord
Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression
Spinal cord compression occurs when there is compression of the spinal cord or cauda...
Chronic Kidney Disease
Managing patients with CKD
In whichever specialty you work, you will encounter large numbers of patients with...
Vertigo
Vertigo
Vertigo is described as an “abnormal sensation of motion. It can occur in the absence...
Chronic Pancreatitis
Chronic Pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by repeated pancreatic inflammation. This leads...
PEG Tubes
PEG Tubes
PEG tubes are used as long term feeding options (and medication administration) for...
HIV
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a species of lentivirus that can infect humans...
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle cell diseases are a disorder of haemoglobin affecting red blood cells. This...
Gastroenterology in Primary Care
Gastroenterology in Primary Care
INTRODUCTIONThis article covers common gastroenterological presenting complaints...
Refeeding Syndrome
Refeeding Syndrome
Defined as a collection of electrolyte abnormalities associated with a massive intracellular...
Visual Loss
Sudden Visual Loss
Loss of vision can be a scary symptom for patients to experience, and a scary presentation...
Hypophosphataemia
Hypophosphataemia
The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on how to replace...
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
SVC syndrome is an oncological emergency. There is obstruction of the superior vena...
Hypocalcaemia
Hypocalcaemia
Alongside strengthening bone, calcium is used in the clotting cascade, in muscle...
Haematological emergencies
Haematological emergencies
In this article, we give an overview of the most important and serious haematological...
Arthralgia
Arthralgia
There are three joint pain calls you might receive whilst you’re on call or...
Skin Cancer
Skin Cancer
Skin cancers have one of the highest global incidences of any type of cancer. Early...
Reporting Adverse Drug Reactions
Reporting Adverse Drug Reactions
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines adverse drug reactions (ADR) as “any...
Duke-Elder Exam
How to Be Prepared for the MSRA
The Multiple Specialty Recruitment Assessment (MSRA) is a computer-based exam increasingly...
Medical Education
How to set up a teaching programme
In this guide, we’ll walk you through how to set up local, regional and national...
Hypocortisolism
Adrenal Crisis & Hypocortisolism
Cortisol is the body’s natural steroid (glucocorticoid) which helps maintain blood...

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