Endocrinology

Hypernatraemia
Hypernatraemia
Hypernatraemia is defined as a sodium above 145 mmol/L with severe being more than...
Hypercalcaemia
Hypercalcaemia
Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia...
Endocrinology
Thyroid Disease
As a junior, you will frequently see patients who potentially have thyroid dysfunction....
Hypertension
Hypertension in Hospital
As a junior doctor, you will often be called about patients with raised blood pressure...
Hypocortisolism
Adrenal Crisis & Hypocortisolism
Cortisol is the body’s natural steroid (glucocorticoid) which helps maintain blood...
Hypocalcaemia
Hypocalcaemia
Alongside strengthening bone, calcium is used in the clotting cascade, in muscle...
Fluid Balance
Fluid Balance
Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their...
Insulin
Hyperglycaemia
Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus...
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte...
Hypoglycaemia
Hypoglycaemia
Management of low blood sugar in conscious & unconscious patients, finding common...
Hypophosphataemia
Hypophosphataemia
Hypophosphatemia is a serum phosphate concentration < 2.5 mg/dL (0.81...
Diabetes
DKA and HHS
You’ve found a patient is hyperglycaemic & either they are ketotic...
Medication in Diabetes
Medications in Diabetes
In this article, we’ll cover the treatments used in Diabetes Mellitus. We’ll...
Diabetic Foot Ulcer
Diabetic Foot Ulcers
Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcerations are a significant complication of diabetes...

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