Emergencies

Delirium
Delirium
Acute confusion, otherwise known as delirium, is very common in hospitals: 20-30%...
Upper GI bleed
Upper GI bleed
These patients have the potential to become haemodynamically unstable extremely quickly;...
Pneumothorax
Pneumothorax
A pneumothorax is defined as the abnormal collection of air between the visceral...
Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s Disease
In this article, we will present several common scenarios involving Parkinson’s disease...
Alcohol Withdrawal
Alcohol Withdrawal
Suddenly stopping alcohol intake in patients who have been drinking heavily for prolonged...
Bradyarrythmias
Bradyarrhythmias
Bradyarrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms with a pulse rate of <60 beats per...
Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction. Features include airway...
Asthma
Acute Asthma
You are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term asthma management,...
Haematological emergencies
Haematological emergencies
In this article, we give an overview of the most important and serious haematological...
Red Eye
Red Eye
Red eye is one of the most common eye presentations you will encounter. Whilst many...
Neutropenic Sepsis
Neutropenic Sepsis
Please read an overview of the management of sepsis before reading this article.Neutropenic...
Compartment Syndrome
Compartment Syndrome
Acute Compartment Syndrome is one of the few orthopaedic emergencies. If missed,...
Opiate Withdrawal
Opiate Withdrawal
As doctors, you will frequently see patients with opiate dependence. It isn’t...
Dental Traumatology
Introduction to Dental Traumatology for A&E
This article aims to give basic information on the assessment of dental trauma to...
Spinal Cord
Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression
Spinal cord compression occurs when there is compression of the spinal cord or cauda...
Hypothermia
Hypothermia
Hypothermia, whilst an infrequently encountered issue during foundation, is a high-risk...
Sharps Injuries
Sharps Injuries
Sharps injuries happen when you least expect them. You can’t always prevent them...
Airway
Difficult Airway Patients
As a doctor, you may come across patients with complex airways. They should be found...
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle cell diseases are a disorder of haemoglobin affecting red blood cells. This...
Hypocortisolism
Adrenal Crisis & Hypocortisolism
Cortisol is the body’s natural steroid (glucocorticoid) which helps maintain blood...
Tachyarrhythmias
Tachyarrhythmias
Tachyarrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms with a pulse rate of >100 beats per...
Liver cirrhosis
Managing a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis
IntroductionPatients with liver disease are common in the UK. Since 1970, mortality...
Toxic-megacolon
CT Abdomen & Pelvis Interpretation
In the webinar below, Dr Henry de Boer (radiology registrar) provides a structured...
Rheumatology
Lower Limb X-Ray Interpretation
In the webinar below, Dr Joe Kang (radiology registrar) provides a structured approach...
Stock wound photo
Upper Limb X-ray Interpretation
In the webinars below, Dr June Lau & Dr Henry de Boer (radiology registrars)...
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CT Chest Interpretation
In the webinar below, Dr Dexter Valencia (interventional radiology registrar) provides...
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CT Head Interpretation
In the webinar below, Dr Sam Kular (interventional radiology fellow) provides a structured...
Stock wound photo
Wound Management in A&E
Wounds are a very common presentation to A&E and minor injuries departments....
IV fluids
Prescribing IV Fluids
There are certain situations where you need to prescribe IV fluids which vary from...
Fluid Balance
Fluid Balance
Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their...
Drowsy
Reduced GCS
As a doctor, you will frequently be called for a drowsy patient. They can vary from...
Insulin
Hyperglycaemia
Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus...
Scans
Requesting Scans
Requesting scans can be a scary daily occurrence for new doctors. It is one of few...
Seizures
Seizures
Scenario: You are bleeped by one of the staff nurses to review a patient on the orthopaedic...
Emergencies
Deteriorating Patient
The deteriorating patient is often the worst nightmare for new FY1s.  I remember...
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte...
PR Bleeding
PR Bleeding
The first thing when called is to identify whether the bleeding is truly a lower...
Blood Gas
ABG Interpretation
In this article, we will look at more practical aspects of how to read an ABG and...
Femoral Stab
Femoral Stab
Femoral puncture is typically used to acquire blood from a patient in an emergency...
Chest Pain
Chest Pain
As a junior doctor, you will also often assess patients complaining of chest pain...
Hypoglycaemia
Hypoglycaemia
Management of low blood sugar in conscious & unconscious patients, finding common...
Hypoxia
Hypoxia
As an FY1, you will be called to review patients who are hypoxic. Here we will discuss...
Sepsis
Sepsis
Sepsis is an infection with evidence of organ dysfunction. Septic shock is when a...
Hypotension
Hypotension
Expect many bleeps about hypotension from concerned nursing staff. It is a useful...
Opiate overdose & toxicity
Opiate overdose & toxicity
You will likely encounter an opiate overdose due to the prevalence of opiates for...
Diabetes
DKA and HHS
You’ve found a patient is hyperglycaemic & either they are ketotic...
ENT
ENT Emergencies
In this article, we cover the main ENT situations you are likely to encounter either...
Stroke
Acute Stroke
Whilst on call or in A&E you may be asked to assess somebody who is suspected...
CNS Infections
CNS Infections
A CNS infection is one that involves the central nervous system in some way. This...
Pulmonary Oedema
Pulmonary Oedema
RCEM has published some clear and comprehensive information which is well worth a...
Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Fibrillation
AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia you will encounter. In this article,...
COPD
Acute COPD exacerbation
As an FY1, you are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term COPD...
NIV
Non-Invasive Ventilation
Non-invasive ventilation is a way of providing ventilatory support to patients in...
Hyperkalaemia
Hyperkalaemia
Hyperkalaemia can cause life-threatening emergencies particularly cardiac arrhythmias....
Heart Failure
Heart Failure
Heart Failure is not a diagnosis in itself, rather a collection of symptoms that...
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism
A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blocked blood vessel in your lungs, most often due...
Haematuria
Haematuria
You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally...

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