Category: Ophthalmology

Periorbital and Orbital Cellulitis

Introduction The orbital septum is a fibrous connective tissue layer which divides orbital tissue from the eyelid, thus serving as a barrier against the spread of infection into the orbit. It extends from the orbital periosteum; is continuous with the tendon of levator palpebrae superioris superiorly and inserts into the tarsal plate inferiorly. Inflammation and

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Eyelid Disease

Introduction and Anatomy The eyelid is important for ensuring physical protection of the eye and maintaining lubrication over the surface of the eyeball. It is composed of five main layers (superficial to deep): skin and subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi, tarsal plate, levator apparatus and conjunctiva. The meibomian glands are modified sebaceous glands that sit within

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Basics of eye trauma with emergency pathologies

This article is the first of two articles about traumatic eye injuries. This article covers the relevant anatomy, history, examination and emergency sight-threatening pathologies to enable you to refer to ophthalmology specialists. The second is called Common Traumatic Pathologies and covers injuries that are important to identify but are less of an emergency. Anatomy  Ocular

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Common traumatic pathologies 

This article is the second of two articles about traumatic eye injuries.  The first is called Basics of Eye Trauma with Emergency Pathologies and covers the relevant anatomy, history, examination and emergency sight-threatening pathologies. The pathologies discussed in this article are important to identify but are less of an emergency. Corneal abrasion Please refer to

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Introduction Risk Factors Causes Bacterial keratitis Pathogens: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudomonas species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common cause in contact lens wearers Fungal keratitis Pathogens: Fusarium and Aspergillus species (filamentary fungi) often from ocular trauma; Candida species (yeasts) in the immunocompromised Protozoal keratitis Pathogen: Acanthamoeba A very rare cause of keratitis and often difficult

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Chemical Eye Injuries

What is it? Common Etiological Agents Alkalis Agent Example Lime (most common) Plaster, cement  Ammonia * Fertilisers Lye * Drain cleaner Magnesium Hydroxide Sparklers, incendiary devices  Potassium Hydroxide Soaps, detergents  *Ammonia and lye tend to cause more severe alkali injuries   Acids Agent Example Sulphuric acid (mostcommon) Industrial cleaners, batteries Sulphurous acid  Bleach Acetic acid  Vinegar Hydrochloric

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Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma

What is it? A sudden increase in intraocular pressure, which can present as an ophthalmic emergency. It usually occurs when the angle between the cornea and iris suddenly becomes closed. The diagram below shows the normal anatomy of the human eye, focusing in on the problem area. The trabecular meshwork is a drainage pathway for

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Orbital Compartment Syndrome

No matter what time of the day it is, this is an ophthalmic emergency and requires urgent management to save vision! Orbital compartment syndrome occurs as a result of a raised intra-orbital pressure which can lead to permanent vision loss in as little as an hour if left untreated. (1) What is it? Orbital compartment

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How to Be Prepared for the MSRA

The Multiple Specialty Recruitment Assessment (MSRA) is a computer-based exam increasingly being used by many different specialties as part of core training applications. For all specialties, the MSRA score will contribute to or be the sole consideration for shortlisting candidates for limited interview slots for each specialty. Subsequently, the MSRA score will also (often) contribute

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Post Operative Cataract Complications

Cataract Surgery: A Brief Introduction Cataracts are the leading cause of reversible blindness in the world. Cataract surgery involves removal of the cataract and replacement with an intraocular lens. As many as 95% of patients will have an improved visual acuity (1), often accompanied by significant improvement in their quality of life. It does however

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