Category: Surgery

Periorbital and Orbital Cellulitis

Introduction The orbital septum is a fibrous connective tissue layer which divides orbital tissue from the eyelid, thus serving as a barrier against the spread of infection into the orbit. It extends from the orbital periosteum; is continuous with the tendon of levator palpebrae superioris superiorly and inserts into the tarsal plate inferiorly. Inflammation and

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Peri-Orbital Cellulitis and Orbital Cellulitis: Diagnosis and Management

Introduction: This exploration of peri-orbital cellulitis and orbital cellulitis is designed to aid in the diagnosis and management of two distinct but closely related ophthalmological conditions that are commonly managed by both ENT and Ophthalmology services. It aims to provide medical professionals and students with a working understanding of these conditions, including aetiology, presentation, diagnosis,

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Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose and Throat

Introduction ENT Foreign bodies can be intimidating to the SHO tasked with first seeing the patient and attempting removal. This quick guide will give you some useful tips and make these encounters less daunting and more successful! Ear Foreign bodies in the ear are a frequent presentation, particularly in paediatric cases. The classic presentation includes

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Eyelid Disease

Introduction and Anatomy The eyelid is important for ensuring physical protection of the eye and maintaining lubrication over the surface of the eyeball. It is composed of five main layers (superficial to deep): skin and subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi, tarsal plate, levator apparatus and conjunctiva. The meibomian glands are modified sebaceous glands that sit within

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Basics of eye trauma with emergency pathologies

This article is the first of two articles about traumatic eye injuries. This article covers the relevant anatomy, history, examination and emergency sight-threatening pathologies to enable you to refer to ophthalmology specialists. The second is called Common Traumatic Pathologies and covers injuries that are important to identify but are less of an emergency. Anatomy  Ocular

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Common traumatic pathologies 

This article is the second of two articles about traumatic eye injuries.  The first is called Basics of Eye Trauma with Emergency Pathologies and covers the relevant anatomy, history, examination and emergency sight-threatening pathologies. The pathologies discussed in this article are important to identify but are less of an emergency. Corneal abrasion Please refer to

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Keratitis

Introduction Risk Factors Causes Bacterial keratitis Pathogens: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudomonas species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common cause in contact lens wearers Fungal keratitis Pathogens: Fusarium and Aspergillus species (filamentary fungi) often from ocular trauma; Candida species (yeasts) in the immunocompromised Protozoal keratitis Pathogen: Acanthamoeba A very rare cause of keratitis and often difficult

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CT Abdomen & Pelvis Interpretation

In the webinar below, Dr Henry de Boer (radiology registrar) provides a structured approach to CT abdomen & pelvis interpretation, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls.

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Upper Limb X-ray Interpretation

In the webinars below, Dr June Lau & Dr Henry de Boer (radiology registrars) provides a structured approach to interpreting shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist & hand x-rays, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls.

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Lower Limb X-Ray Interpretation

In the webinar below, Dr Joe Kang (radiology registrar) provides a structured approach to interpreting knee, ankle & foot x-rays, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls.

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