Category: Surgery

Open Fractures

Introduction Clinical Definition An open fracture is when the broken bone breaks through the skin or any other body cavity that is open to the outside, including those through the rectum or vagina.  Classification  Gustilo and Anderson Classification1,2 Type Wound Size Contamination Fracture Arterial injury requiring repair Soft Tissue Coverage 1 < 1cm Minimal Minimal

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Chemical Eye Injuries

What is it? Common Etiological Agents Alkalis Agent Example Lime (most common) Plaster, cement  Ammonia * Fertilisers Lye * Drain cleaner Magnesium Hydroxide Sparklers, incendiary devices  Potassium Hydroxide Soaps, detergents  *Ammonia and lye tend to cause more severe alkali injuries   Acids Agent Example Sulphuric acid (mostcommon) Industrial cleaners, batteries Sulphurous acid  Bleach Acetic acid  Vinegar Hydrochloric

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Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma

What is it? A sudden increase in intraocular pressure, which can present as an ophthalmic emergency. It usually occurs when the angle between the cornea and iris suddenly becomes closed. The diagram below shows the normal anatomy of the human eye, focusing in on the problem area. The trabecular meshwork is a drainage pathway for

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Orbital Compartment Syndrome

No matter what time of the day it is, this is an ophthalmic emergency and requires urgent management to save vision! Orbital compartment syndrome occurs as a result of a raised intra-orbital pressure which can lead to permanent vision loss in as little as an hour if left untreated. (1) What is it? Orbital compartment

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How to set up a teaching programme

In this guide, we’ll walk you through how to set up local, regional and national teaching programmes with top tips we’ve learnt over the last several years of running programmes ourselves. We include top resources to make your life a lot easier. We welcome your questions and we offer our personalised help if you want

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How to Be Prepared for the MSRA

The Multiple Specialty Recruitment Assessment (MSRA) is a computer-based exam increasingly being used by many different specialties as part of core training applications. For all specialties, the MSRA score will contribute to or be the sole consideration for shortlisting candidates for limited interview slots for each specialty. Subsequently, the MSRA score will also (often) contribute

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Post Operative Cataract Complications

Cataract Surgery: A Brief Introduction Cataracts are the leading cause of reversible blindness in the world. Cataract surgery involves removal of the cataract and replacement with an intraocular lens. As many as 95% of patients will have an improved visual acuity (1), often accompanied by significant improvement in their quality of life. It does however

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A Career in Plastic Surgery

If you ask most people (medics included!) what they think of when you say plastic surgery, most people will say it’s about nose jobs, boob jobs and making people look like a Kardashian! We have a reputation of being focused on private practice and earning lots of money doing purely cosmetic procedures. In reality, cosmetic

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Giant Cell Arteritis

What is it? GCA (Giant cell arteritis) or temporal arteritis is a well known Ophthalmology emergency. GCA is a type of vasculitis that affects medium to larger sized vessels Who gets it? Signs and symptoms: Local symptoms Systemic symptoms Headache Jaw claudication Pain in tongue Painful scalp/over temporal area Persistent pain Hardening of temporal artery

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Introduction to Cataracts

A cataract is “a clouding of the lens of the eye or of its surrounding transparent membrane that obstructs the passage of light”. Cataracts cause 50% of blindness and 33% of visual impairment around the world (Wale et al). Luckily, cataract surgery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed around the world and

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