Category: Respiratory

CT Chest Interpretation

In the webinar below, Dr Dexter Valencia (interventional radiology registrar) provides a structured approach to CT chest/thorax interpretation, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls.

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Pleural effusion

As a foundation doctor, shortness of breath is one of the commonest symptoms you can encounter on the acute take. Causes of shortness of breath are very broad but in this session, we will discuss pleural effusion. The management will vary depending on the causes of pleural effusion, therefore the diagnostic approach is important. The

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Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by the irreversible widening and scarring of the bronchi, leading to recurrent infections and a decline in lung function. While relatively rare, bronchiectasis can be a debilitating condition that severely impacts a patient’s quality of life. It is important to recognise the signs and symptoms of bronchiectasis, as

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Pneumothorax

A pneumothorax is defined as the abnormal collection of air between the visceral and parietal space of the lung i.e. the pleural space. It typically presents with acute shortness of breath, pleuritic chest pain and is more common in those with damaged or stretched lungs. Despite clear cut guidelines from BTS, real-life management varies considerably

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Pulmonary embolism

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blocked blood vessel in your lungs, most often due to a blood clot. It is common and can be asymptomatic but can be life-threatening if the clot is large and near the centre of the lung. With a massive PE immediate management is necessary. Causes A common cause of

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Pneumonia

In this article, we will focus on more practical concerns when managing a patient with pneumonia for junior doctors. Covid-19 is not discussed here.  History Basics: fever, productive cough with yellow-green sputum, shortness of breath & pleuritic chest pain In the context of patients with underlying respiratory disease, ask what about the sputum & SOB

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Hypoxia

As an FY1, you will be called to review patients who are hypoxic. Here we will discuss common causes of generalised hypoxia rather than focal hypoxia/ischaemia, such as in strokes or heart attacks. Also, insufficient oxygen-carrying capacity due to anaemia or ineffective use of oxygen at the tissue level (no cyanide management here zebra hunters!)

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Non-Invasive Ventilation

Non-invasive ventilation is a way of providing ventilatory support to patients in respiratory failure without using an invasive airway device (e.g. ET tube or tracheostomy tube). The devices are becoming increasingly commonplace in medical practice and can be set up by trained professionals in the Emergency Department, on the wards, in ICU or even at

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Acute COPD exacerbation

As an FY1, you are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term COPD management therefore focus your efforts on learning how to deal with acute exacerbations. Initial assessment1. If a patient reports having a diagnosis of COPD it is worth asking a few questions to clarify the accuracy of the statement. It

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Performing Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs)

Thanks to Geeky Medics for an excellent video demonstration Equipment Gloves Alcohol wipe Cotton wool/ gauze ABG syringe (ensure it is pre-heparinised) and blue needle Hand sanitiser When performing any clinical procedure By Dr Zana Martin (FY2)

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