Category: Renal


You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally on a urine drip. Your initial assessment should aim to identify whether this is due to a UTI (or other transient cause) and whether it is urological or nephrological with the help of measuring the patient’s blood pressure, bloods (FBC,

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Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this, without the need for careful medical assessment and adjustment, as fluid balance is one of its core functions. Despite this, there are many situations where we need careful and controlled management. These include: Electrolyte disturbance

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Managing patients with CKD

In whichever specialty you work, you will encounter large numbers of patients with chronic kidney disease and this will impact many components of their care. Your role as a junior is preventing further decline of renal function, by monitoring and managing AKI efficiently and being aware of how to avoid and treat or escalate any

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Dialysis Patients

There is an increasing prevalence of end-stage kidney disease and it is therefore likely that you will be involved in the care of dialysis patients. Dialysis patients can be quite complex and daunting to deal with as a newly qualified doctor. Often, you will also need to refer to the renal team, but here is

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Acute Kidney Injury

AKI is very common affecting around 20% of inpatients & it is important to recognise promptly and correctly to avoid complications. In this article, we give a quick overview of the assessment and management followed by a detail information on each step. Quick Overview Severity: Graded by the extent of creatinine rise from baseline or

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