Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia is a life-threatening electrolyte emergency requiring prompt recognition and urgent treatment. Classification Mild (2.65 – 3.00 mmol/L): Patient is often asymptomatic Moderate (3.01-3.40 mmol/L): Can be asymptomatic or symptomatic Severe (>3.40 mmol/L): Risk of dysrhythmia and coma Serum calcium is found in 2 forms
SVC syndrome is an oncological emergency. There is obstruction of the superior vena cava resulting in stagnating blood and a high risk of thrombosis. Due to this obstruction, collaterals develop to drain the head, neck & upper extremities which dilate over several weeks. Cardiac output is usually not severely diminished as the quick rise in
A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a blood clot (thrombosis) forms within a deep vein and can be provoked or unprovoked . 2.5-5% of the population will have a DVT in their lifetime . Virchow’s triad explains the relationship between venous stasis, hypercoagulability and endothelial vessel wall in increasing the risk
In this article, we will go through the three most common scenarios you will encounter. These are: (1) Does this patient need a transfusion? (2) Can you group & save or transfuse this patient? (3) This patient may be having a transfusion reaction, could you please advise? Scenario 1: Does this patient need a transfusion?
Spinal cord compression occurs when there is compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina at any level secondary to the effects of a malignancy. This can include metastatic infiltration to the vertebral column causing instability or pathological fractures as well as direct pressure from malignancy to the spinal cord. This condition affects around 5-10%
Please read an overview of the management of sepsis before reading this article. Neutropenic sepsis is defined as a temperature of greater than 38°C or any symptoms and/or signs of sepsis, in a person with an absolute neutrophil count of 0.5 x 109/L or lower. It is a common and potentially life-threatening complication of neutropenia.
You will frequently get calls regarding nausea & vomiting: many patients present with it or develop it because of their diagnosis or treatment. You must consider anything concerning that could be causing it and give appropriate treatment for the underlying cause, correct any electrolyte disturbances & dehydration due to it in addition to antiemetics. Certain
Dying is a natural process and unfortunately, something that we all come across in our daily jobs, including whilst on call. Despite this, very little time is dedicated during our training towards managing the dying patient. Instead, all the focus is upon saving and resuscitating the patient. The question is though, what do we do
As an FY1 you should not be expected to make decisions regarding treatment escalation and DNAR, but you may need to prompt seniors to consider them & explain these decisions to your patients and/or relatives. Definitions and abbreviations Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR/ DNA CPR) – this is a medical decision that states if a
When assessing pain, ensure you begin by taking a history to characterise the pain as neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain and oncological pain all respond to different analgesia. SOCRATES is a helpful way to systematically take this history as it will help identify any serious underlying disease that is causing the pain and whether any further