Category: Neurology

Functional Neurological Disorders (FND)

Introduction Functional neurological disorders are some of the most common neurological problems and are conceptualised as disorders of the functioning of the nervous system (rather than the structure). They can cause a wide array of symptoms, such as seizures, weakness and dizziness, and typically there are clinical features that actively support the diagnosis of FND.

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Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the third most common dementia across all age groups and the leading type of early-onset dementia. This type affects primarily the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, with a characteristic pattern of atrophy (brain parenchymal loss) on imaging studies. There are two main subtypes of FTD, Behavioural variant (bvFTD) and

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CT Head Interpretation

In the webinar below, Dr Sam Kular (interventional radiology fellow) provides a structured approach to CT head interpretation, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls.

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Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD)

In people over the age of 65 years, 1 in 11 will have a diagnosis of dementia. Dementia is a chronic, irreversible and progressive condition, not only affecting memory but also an individual’s emotions, behaviour, and executive function. These additional symptoms have a high burden of morbidity for patients and also impact their relatives and

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Lumbar Puncture

A lumbar puncture uses a fine needle inserted between the vertebrae in the lower back to take samples of CSF from the subarachnoid space. The CSF that is obtained can aid the diagnosis of infections, subarachnoid haemorrhage & neurological disorders including Guillan-Barré Syndrome (GBS) or MS. Check out our article on CSF interpretation for more

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Sudden Visual Loss

Loss of vision can be a scary symptom for patients to experience, and a scary presentation for doctors to manage! You will not be expected to know the causes in detail. However, some knowledge of the following conditions will help you to risk-stratify patients. These patients will most likely require an urgent referral to your

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Vertigo

Vertigo is described as an “abnormal sensation of motion. It can occur in the absence of motion or when motion is sensed inaccurately”1 Assessing a patient with vertigo can be challenging, even for experienced clinicians. Patients often use the words “vertigo” and “dizziness” synonymously to describe their symptoms, but the sensations they are experiencing can

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CNS Infections

A CNS infection is one that involves the central nervous system in some way. This includes the meninges, cerebellum, ventricular system and spinal cord, among others. Meningitis is the most common form of CNS infection. You should have a low threshold for starting empirical treatment in suspected cases of meningitis or encephalitis, particularly in patients

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Interpreting CSF Results

Understanding how to do an LP and interpret the results is an essential skill for most doctors, particularly those planning on a hospital-based specialty. You will often be handed over to review the results and act accordingly during ward cover shifts. As with any handover, ensure when you are asked to chase the results that

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Syncope

From the Greek: Syn: together & kopein: to cut – referring to a block in blood supply from the body to the brain, most often due a drop in systemic blood pressure. It is defined as (1) temporary and transient (2) a form of loss of consciousness…

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