Category: Gastroenterology

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is a condition characterised by the inflammation of the pancreas. These patients are usually managed conservatively. Your aim is to try to find out the underlying cause, optimise managing them conservatively whilst observing for complications. Signs and symptoms: Upper abdominal pain (usually described as radiating to the back) Pain that gets worse after eating

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Alcohol Withdrawal

Suddenly stopping alcohol intake in patients who have been drinking heavily for prolonged periods is dangerous and can lead to severe withdrawal. Delirium tremens can occur in about 10% of patients with withdrawal and carries a 5-10% mortality risk. Certain patients will require pharmacological (and non-pharmacological) tools as part of an inpatient alcohol detoxification programme,

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Paracetamol Overdose

As an FY1, you will encounter these either during clerking shifts or you may look after them on the ward. As it is quite common, the information below is to help give you an overview. For management, use Toxbase, the login should be on your trust intranet or from A&E. The app allows you to sign

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Jaundice & Deranged LFTs

As the FY1, you will see patients with liver dysfunction either on the take or deranged LFTs when you are reviewing bloods. A focused approach can save you time & help you find the likely underlying cause to start investigating. It can also help you identify red flags that prompt urgent escalation. Red flags (urgent

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Upper GI bleed

These patients have the potential to become haemodynamically unstable extremely quickly; try to avoid delays in reviewing them. In-hospital mortality is around 10%. If they are unwell then assess them using A-E and a SAMPLE history and get senior help quickly if you are concerned. Depending on your hospital this may be via the arrest

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Refeeding Syndrome

Defined as a collection of electrolyte abnormalities associated with a massive intracellular shift of electrolytes. Associated with aggressive nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished patients in e.g. malignancy, chronic organ dysfunction, inflammatory conditions (e.g. pancreatitis, colitis), the perioperative period as well as anorexia nervosa. Clinical features Sequelae of hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, e.g.Congestive heart failure, peripheral oedema,

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Abdominal Pain

When you are on call, you will often get a bleep about a patient with abdominal pain. Abdominal pain can be a bit of a minefield and it is easy to get bogged down with all the possibilities. The key is to be systematic and take a clear history and thorough examination so that you

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