Category: Endocrinology

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities you will see and so a systematic approach to identifying the underlying cause and management is vital. We will use the algorithm below from ESE which is far easier to use than the antiquated system of first assessing their volume status. Recommended Investigations

Read More »

Hypophosphataemia

The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on how to replace phosphate. Clinical features Generally asymptomatic if mild Can cause many systemic features CNS & MSK: weakness/myalgia, lethargy, confusion, seizures Cardiorespiratory failure Rickets/Osteomalacia if chronic Causes Malabsorption D&V Refeeding syndrome Investigations Check the calcium, U&Es, renal function Treatment Use local guidelines or consider

Read More »

Hypocalcaemia

Alongside strengthening bone, calcium is used in the clotting cascade, in muscle contraction, and in nerve-signalling. As such, low levels can lead to coagulopathy, smooth and skeletal muscle-spasms, heart problems, altered sensation and even seizures. Acute hypocalcaemia that is severe (<1.9 mmol/L) or symptomatic can be life-threatening and necessitates urgent treatment. It is often initially

Read More »

Follow us

Our Newsletter

Trending Now

How to take a psychiatric history
Psychiatry, as a specialty is unique in that diagnostic methods, rely very heavily on symptomatology,...
Preparing for the Situational Judgement Test
Preparing for the Situational Judgement Test (SJT) exam can be quite daunting. It makes up 50% of your...
Applying to Core Surgical Training (CST)
Surgical training has a variety of work to get involved in as well as having many sub-specialties within...
Passing the Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA)
The PSA is aimed at final year medical students and those graduating overseas to assess their competency...
ABG Interpretation
In this article, we will look at more practical aspects of how to read an ABG and treatment following...
Describing Skin Lesions
It is quite common for you to need to describe rashes for documentation purposes, to senior colleagues...
Audits & Quality Improvement Projects (QIPs)
Audits & QIPs are a way to identify issues, drive changes and assess the effects they have. It is...

Sign up for our awesome resources

Join over 25,000 users who have signed up for our free weekly webinars, referral cheat sheet & other amazing content!