Category: Emergencies

CNS Infections

A CNS infection is one that involves the central nervous system in some way. This includes the meninges, cerebellum, ventricular system and spinal cord, among others. Meningitis is the most common form of CNS infection. You should have a low threshold for starting empirical treatment in suspected cases of meningitis or encephalitis, particularly in patients

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Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this, without the need for careful medical assessment and adjustment, as fluid balance is one of its core functions. Despite this, there are many situations where we need careful and controlled management. These include: Electrolyte disturbance

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Hypothermia

Hypothermia, whilst an infrequently encountered issue during foundation, is a high-risk condition with a need for investigation and often rapid intervention. It is defined as a core body temperature less than 35°C and can be divided into mild, moderate and severe (by the extent of hypothermia and associated signs/symptoms) or into the duration of onset

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Red Eye

Red eye is one of the most common eye presentations you will encounter. Whilst many will likely be referred to an opthalmologist or senior clinician, it’s important to know what common cases you are likely to encounter and how to manage them. One of the main factors is to distinguish whether the red eye is

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ENT Emergencies

In this article, we cover the main ENT situations you are likely to encounter either in A&E, during an ENT on call job or occasionally as a ward emergency. ENT cases can be exciting but slightly daunting, particularly due to the number of specialty-specific presentations and practical procedures to become familiar with as well as

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DKA and HHS

You’ve found a patient is hyperglycaemic & either they are ketotic or have significant hyperglycaemia (>30mmol/L) and so you suspect DKA or HHS respectively. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) DKA is defined as the biochemical triad of: Ketonaemia ≥3 mmol/L (on ketone meter) OR significant ketonuria (≥2+ on standard urine sticks) Blood glucose ≥ 11mmol/L OR known diabetes mellitus*

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Parkinson’s Disease

In this article, we will present several common scenarios involving Parkinson’s disease (PD) that you might face on the ward or on call. We will not go into too much detail about the pathophysiology of the disease – as fascinating as it is. This is more of a quick practical guide, on how to deal

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Hyperglycaemia

Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus on how to approach hyperglycaemia and identify diabetic emergencies. If your patient is ketotic or has significant hyperglycaemia (>30mmol/L), consider DKA or HHS respectively which are covered in a separate article. Introduction Hyperglycaemia may be the first indication that a patient is unwell.

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ABG Interpretation

In this article, we will look at more practical aspects of how to read an ABG and treatment following your interpretation. If you’re looking on how to perform an ABG, read this article. An ABG is vital in any medical emergency call, providing valuable information on a patient’s clinical state quickly. The body tightly controls

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Sharps Injuries

Sharps injuries happen when you least expect them. You can’t always prevent them but you can do a lot to reduce the risk. It might be the patient is delirious and moved their arm, or you missed the sharps bin when trying to put the ABG needle into it, and it falls into your hand;

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