Category: Abnormal Investigations

CT Abdomen & Pelvis Interpretation

In the webinar below, Dr Henry de Boer (radiology registrar) provides a structured approach to CT abdomen & pelvis interpretation, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls.

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Upper Limb X-ray Interpretation

In the webinars below, Dr June Lau & Dr Henry de Boer (radiology registrars) provides a structured approach to interpreting shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist & hand x-rays, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls.

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Lower Limb X-Ray Interpretation

In the webinar below, Dr Joe Kang (radiology registrar) provides a structured approach to interpreting knee, ankle & foot x-rays, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls. Key Points Knee X-Ray Views Fracture Examples in the Knee Ankle X-Ray Views AP and Lateral Views: Standard views for assessing ankle injuries. Complex Fractures in the Ankle

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CT Chest Interpretation

In the webinar below, Dr Dexter Valencia (interventional radiology registrar) provides a structured approach to CT chest/thorax interpretation, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls.

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CT Head Interpretation

In the webinar below, Dr Sam Kular (interventional radiology fellow) provides a structured approach to CT head interpretation, with an overview of common cases & pitfalls.

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Hypercalcaemia

Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia is a life-threatening electrolyte emergency requiring prompt recognition and urgent treatment.   Classification Mild (2.65 – 3.00 mmol/L): Patient is often asymptomatic Moderate (3.01-3.40 mmol/L): Can be asymptomatic or symptomatic Severe (>3.40 mmol/L): Risk of dysrhythmia and coma Serum calcium is found in 2 forms

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Hypomagnesaemia

The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on how to replace magnesium.Useful advice on treatment: Clinical features Usually asymptomatic Irritability & lethargy Nausea/vomiting Psychiatric: confusion, depression, psychosis Neuromuscular: Tremors, cramps, tetany, weakness & seizures ECG: prolonged PR, ST depression, altered T waves, arrhythmias Causes Dietary such as refeeding syndrome GI losses (D&V, high stoma output)

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Haematuria

You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally on a urine drip. Your initial assessment should aim to identify whether this is due to a UTI (or other transient cause) and whether it is urological or nephrological with the help of measuring the patient’s blood pressure, bloods (FBC,

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Interpreting Blood Films

A blood film looks at our three cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets) under a microscope to identify any abnormalities to give visual clues regarding the functional state of the bone marrow & any systemic diseases. You should treat this article as a reference for where you can read up on differentials based on the

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Interpreting CSF Results

Understanding how to do an LP and interpret the results is an essential skill for most doctors, particularly those planning on a hospital-based specialty. You will often be handed over to review the results and act accordingly during ward cover shifts. As with any handover, ensure when you are asked to chase the results that

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