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Non-Invasive Ventilation
Non-invasive ventilation is a way of providing ventilatory support to patients in respiratory failure without using an invasive airway device (e.g. ET tube or tracheostomy tube).The...
As an FY1 you will frequently see hypokalaemia and most trusts have guidelines that should be used in the first instance. The advice below is informal & based on broad day to day...
Heart Failure
Heart Failure
Heart Failure is not a diagnosis in itself, rather a collection of symptoms that require investigation to find the underlying cause.Heart failure syndrome is the term used to describe...
Mental Capacity
Mental Capacity
Mental Capacity is the ability to make your own decisions at the time at which the decision needs to be made. The mental capacity act was designed to protect and empower people who...
NG Tube
Nasogastric Tubes
NG tubes are passed from the nose to the stomach. Depending on the material, they can stay between 2 to 6 weeks. However, they quite easily can fall out either being accidentally tugged...
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism
A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blocked blood vessel in your lungs, most often due to a blood clot. It is common and can be asymptomatic but can be life-threatening if the clot is large...

Latest Content

Daily Reviews on the ICU
In the intensive care unit, junior medical staff conduct and present daily reviews of their patients to seniors to guide the planning of care on the ward round.This may well seem daunting...
Healthy meal prep
Right, we’ve all been there. You’re starving after finished a long day, have forgotten the shops close at 4pm on Sunday, or simply can’t find the energy to chop onions and garlic in...
Paediatric IV Fluid Prescribing
Prescribing IV fluids in paediatrics is different to adult medicine and requires a bit more thinking and some maths. This article breaks down prescribing fluid boluses, maintenance...
Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is usually categorised as melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancer, the latter including squamous cell (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC).Risk factorsBasal cell carcinoma Squamous...
Pupil Disorders
IntroductionPupil size results from the activity of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation to the muscles of the iris. Under normal circumstances, bright light causes pupil...
Hand Infections
Hand infections are a common presentation, they can spread rapidly and cause damage to local structures and therefore require prompt identification and treatment.CausesHand infections...
Picture 1
IntroductionPapilloedema is optic disc swelling which is specifically secondary to raised intracranial pressure (ICP). It is nearly always bilateral and can be asymmetrical. [1]The...
Amblyopia is a childhood cause of visual impairment. It occurs due to abnormal visual development in early life, particularly the cortical visual pathway. It is often described as a...
Referring to the Intensive Care Unit
As a foundation doctor, caring for patients who deteriorate rapidly and/or are critically unwell can be daunting.Intensive care units provide the highest-level care for patients within...
Neonatal Respiratory Physiology
This may seem like a very subspecialist topic but as part of a paeds job as a junior trainee or FY2 you may be expected to cover a neonatal unit and this may involve looking after ventilated...
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