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Hyperkalaemia can cause life-threatening emergencies particularly cardiac arrhythmias. A widely used definition is extracellular [K+] ion concentration ≥ 5.5 mmol/L.Complications...
Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Fibrillation
AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia you will encounter. In this article, we focus on the management of it. Identification of atrial fibrillation is usually fairly easy...
Nausea & Vomiting
Nausea & Vomiting
You will frequently get calls regarding nausea & vomiting: many patients present with it or develop it because of their diagnosis or treatment. You must consider anything concerning...
Urine Catheter
Urinary Catheterisation
In this article, we discuss when a catheter might be needed and top tips on male & female catheterisation.Before attempting catheterisation, always review the followingIs...
Non-Invasive Ventilation
Non-invasive ventilation is a way of providing ventilatory support to patients in respiratory failure without using an invasive airway device (e.g. ET tube or tracheostomy tube).The...
Hypophosphatemia is a serum phosphate concentration < 2.5 mg/dL (0.81 mmol/L). Mild hypophosphatemia is somewhat common and usually isn’t a cause for concern however...

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Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is usually categorised as melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancer, the latter including squamous cell (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC).Risk factorsBasal cell carcinoma Squamous...
Pupil Disorders
IntroductionPupil size results from the activity of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation to the muscles of the iris. Under normal circumstances, bright light causes pupil...
Hand Infections
Hand infections are a common presentation, they can spread rapidly and cause damage to local structures and therefore require prompt identification and treatment.CausesHand infections...
Picture 1
IntroductionPapilloedema is optic disc swelling which is specifically secondary to raised intracranial pressure (ICP). It is nearly always bilateral and can be asymmetrical. [1]The...
Amblyopia is a childhood cause of visual impairment. It occurs due to abnormal visual development in early life, particularly the cortical visual pathway. It is often described as a...
Referring to the Intensive Care Unit
As a foundation doctor, caring for patients who deteriorate rapidly and/or are critically unwell can be daunting.Intensive care units provide the highest-level care for patients within...
Neonatal Respiratory Physiology
This may seem like a very subspecialist topic but as part of a paeds job as a junior trainee or FY2 you may be expected to cover a neonatal unit and this may involve looking after ventilated...
A Cheat Sheet for Neonatal Invasive Ventilation
Neonatal ventilation is a complex topic but one you may need to get your head around as an FY2 if you cover a NICU as part of your paeds rotation. You should read our article about...
Visual Field Defects: A Summary
The visual field is the entire area a patient can see with their eyes fixes and without moving their head up, down, left or right. The image is inverted upside down and flipped left...
Anterior uveitis
Introduction – epidemiology and causes/risk factors:Uveitis is a condition that describes the inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. Anterior uveitis, more specifically,...
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